Saturday, May 23, 2020

Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastics

PET plastics or polyethylene terephthalate is used in many different products. The properties of PET makes it ideal for a number of different uses and these advantages make it one of the most common plastics available today. Understanding more about the history of PET, as well as the chemical properties, will allow you to appreciate this plastic even more. In addition, most communities recycle this type of plastic, which allows it to be used again and again. What are the chemical properties of PET? PET Chemical Properties This plastic is a thermoplastic resin of the polyester family and is commonly used in many different products, including synthetic fibers. It can exist in both a transparent and a semi-crystalline polymer, depending upon the processing and thermal history. Polyethylene terephthalate is a polymer that is formed by combining two monomers: modified ethylene glycol and purified terephthalic acid. PET can be modified with additional polymers as well, making it acceptable and usable for other uses. History of PET The history of PET began in 1941. The first patent was filed by John Whinfield and James Dickson, along with their employer, the Calico Printers Association of Manchester. They based their invention on the earlier work of Wallace Carothers. They, working with others, created the first polyester fiber called Terylene in 1941, which was followed by many other types and brands of polyester fibers. Another patent was filed in 1973 by Nathaniel Wyeth for PET bottles, which he used for medicines. Advantages of PET PET offers several different advantages. PET can be found in many different forms, from semi-rigid to rigid. This is largely dependent upon its thickness. It is a lightweight plastic that can be made into a number of different products. It is very strong and has impact resistant properties as well. As far as color, it is largely colorless and transparent, although color can be added, depending upon the product that it is being used for. These advantages make PET one of the most common types of plastic that is found today. Uses of PET There are many different uses for PET. One of the most common is for drink bottles, including soft drinks and more. PET film or what is called Mylar is used for balloons, flexible food packaging, space blankets, and as a carrier for magnetic tape or backing for pressure sensitive adhesive tape. In addition, it can be formed to make trays for frozen dinners and for other packaging trays and blisters. If glass particles or fibers are added to the PET, it becomes more durable and stiffer in nature. PET is largely used for synthetic fibers, also known as polyester. PET Recycling PET is commonly recycled in most areas of the country, even with curbside recycling, which is simple and easy for everyone. Recycled PET can be used in a number of different things, including polyester fibers for carpeting, parts for cars, fiberfill for coats and sleeping bags, shoes, luggage, t-shirts, and more. The way to tell if you are dealing with PET plastic is looking for the recycling symbol with the number 1 inside of it. If you are not sure that your community recycles it, simply contact your recycling center and ask. They will be happy to help. PET is a very common type of plastic and understanding its composition, as well as its advantages and uses, will allow you to appreciate it a little bit more. You most likely have lots of products in your home that contains PET, which means that you have the opportunity to recycle and allow your product to make even more products. Chances are you will touch different PET products over a dozen times today.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Commercial Law Free Essay Example, 2250 words

Patents refer to an exclusive right granted by the central governments to the creator of an invention to use, produce or sell the invention. Trademarks refer to names, designs, symbol, slogans, word or any other distinctive device that ascertains a product or a business. Also, it involves the use of symbols that are added to goods to distinguish them from similar products of other manufacturers. Patents and trademarks are an industrial intellectual property. The origin of a trademark can be traced to 2000 years ago among the Romans. In that period, Roman used to imprint or inscribed their goods with marks to differentiate them from those of other manufacturers. Ever since merchants have relied on those marks to single their products in the market. However, lack of registration of trademark legislation made it hard for the court to settle claims involving infringement owners right to the goods. The court relied on principles of common law to settle such claims. However, common law re lied on the evidence given by the claimant to prove the right of ownership. Such evidence depended on the reputation the plaintiffs had established in relation to use of the particular mark. We will write a custom essay sample on Commercial Law or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page v. Hill Smith Ltd, patenting is a process in which the proprietor informs interested individuals or organizations about the most distinguishing features of his or her products or services.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Importance of Initial Consultation and Ethical Issues Facing the Therapist Free Essays

string(41) " the use of a free initial consultation\." Introduction This paper discusses why the initial consultation is so important and what factors an ethical therapist will cover in this aspect of the therapy process. It also tackles the ethical issues besetting a therapist in the conduct of his profession dealing with psychotherapeutic counseling and hypnotherapy and counseling skills. The role of a therapist in the behaviour alteration of his or her client is so vital that it is necessary to observe some ethical considerations in the practice of his profession. We will write a custom essay sample on Importance of Initial Consultation and Ethical Issues Facing the Therapist or any similar topic only for you Order Now Importance of initial consultation An initial consultation is the first of the stages of psychotherapy and generally includes a discussion of the reasons as to why the client is seeking psychotherapy help and what he is hoping to obtain from the experience. Why it is important is because it provides an opportunity to find out whether the needs, interests, and goals of the client fit with the skills of the therapist. This stage also provides the initial clarification about the limits of confidentiality, therapeutic approach, and other terms of professional services. Moreover, the initial consultation helps both the client and the therapist to gauge whether each is likely to be able to work with the other successfully (Plante, 2011). The importance of initial consultation is also found in making a formal determination of the client’s fit for a psychotherapeutic relationship and potential for meaningful change (Klonoff, 2010). Whilst informed consent is shown as important in the therapy process, with a clear descr iption of the limits of confidentiality, full informed consent to treatment has been mandated by ethical guidelines. If for example, a client approaches a therapist for initial consultation, informed consent to treatment may involve information on behavioural therapies demonstrating effectiveness and rapid changes in the treatment of the behavioral problem that the client is complaining about (e.g. panic) (Weiner and Hess, 2006). Further, initial consultation is important because it is where a range of decisions are in terms of whether to schedule a second session. For example, the client may evaluate whether it is adequate to have his or her needs be met by working with the therapist, as well as whether the practical terms of the therapy are acceptable to the client. In addition, considering the information thus provided during the consultation session, the therapist may ascertain whether he or she possesses the needed expertise to work effectively and successfully with the client (Klonoff, 2010). Another importance of initial consultation is that it allows initiating a collaborative relationship between the client and the therapist and evaluating initial consultation efforts. If the therapist happens to assess a need for consultation services, then the entry stage would then initiate a consulting relationship. The value of initial consultation is seen in the establishment of a voluntary and collaborative consulting relationship between the counselor and the client. Different role expectations can lead to resistance on the part of the client, which thus necessitates a vital importance of agreement relating to role expectations to reduce such potential resistance. An initial step in evaluating a client’s condition is establishing an accurate diagnosis, which is done during the initial consultation (Boylan et al., 2011). Much as the above are important for conducting an initial consultation, it is also because such consultation may potentially lead the client not to continue further services. The client may come to a decision that the therapist, for some reason, cannot adequately meet his or her needs. For example, he or she may find the therapist as being too direct, aloof, expensive, inexperienced, young, old, etc., and thus may conclude that the therapist’s qualities are not fit to his or her needs. The client may also feel better after the initial consultation and may no longer feel compelled to continue further sessions. Similarly, the therapist may decline from providing continued services for a variety of reasons, such as the client’s revelation of an alcohol problem, about which the therapist might decide to refer him or her instead to a specialist in the treatment of problems relating to substance abuse (Plante, 2011). Alternatively, there are times that patients are referred by their physician right after discharge from an inpatient rehabilitation setting. Of note, the one seeking therapy for the patient is in fact not the patient himself but the patient’s family. Perceptive health care professionals are the ones who usually recognise a need for psychotherapy by the patient, with an emphasis on coping, psychoeducation, and deficit adjustment. Therefore, it must not always be assumed that it is the client who is motivated to seek psychotherapy (Klonoff, 2010). In cases of patients being considered for psychotherapy, a physician’s referral is needed, in which relevant medical records must be acquired to determine whether the patient is appropriate for therapy as well as whether he or she anticipates potential psychotherapeutic needs and challenges. It is during the initial consultation in which records are presented after being obtained and reviewed in advance in order for the therapis t to thoroughly understand what the client has gone through or is going through (Klonoff, 2010). Therefore, without the initial consultation, psychotherapeutic intervention might not be sufficient and effective enough. Ethical issues faced by therapists The psychotherapist is guided by ethical standards and codes that provide professional standards aimed at guiding their ethical conduct (Kohlenberg and Tsai, 2007). One ethical issue faced by a therapist in terms of initial consultation is whether to provide the consultation free of charge to the client, as some clients who have taken up this offer tended to decide to continue in counseling because of being obliged to do so. This would prompt a concern whether the therapist has violated any portion of the code of ethics (Welfel, 2013). There are some who do not charge for initial consultations, and it is important that the client is informed whether the therapist does or does not charge for the first session (Wheeler, 2014). A potential problem may ensue with the use of a free initial consultation. You read "Importance of Initial Consultation and Ethical Issues Facing the Therapist" in category "Essay examples" This is because clients may feel committed after the initial consultatio n and may have difficulty declining further treatment because the initial consultation was free of charge. Some might even regard this practice as taking advantage of clients and may perhaps be seen as undue influence mentioned in the code of ethics (Welfel, 2013). Another ethical issue that may ensue during initial consultation is sexual attraction between the client and the therapist, which is identified as a boundary ethical issue (Houser et al., 2006). The client may have emotional or sex-related problems that he/she initially presents to the therapist, which the therapist must approach objectively. Albeit discussion of these feelings can foster therapeutic progress, it is still unethical and counter-therapeutic to act on them. Even when it may seem sound to become sexual with a client with sexual problems as an intervention, engaging in such unethical activity is definitely against established ethical standards and codes. Rather, the best intervention that the therapist may adopt for his/her client with sexual problems is sex therapy with the client and a significant other.The several malpractice suits filed against therapists relating to sexual relationships with their client only confirm the unethical and counter-therapeutic stance of se xual relationship between the therapist and client (Kohlenberg and Tsai, 2007). Even at the onset of the initial consultation, sexual attraction may already spark, which the therapist, being the more responsible person, must put a wall against. Emotional tyranny is also a common ethical issue that may occur even during an initial consultation. It is a term describing abuse of power by psychotherapists to the disadvantage of their clients, caused by the power imbalance between them. For example, during the initial consultation, the therapist’s power is seen in how he establishes the therapy session, how long the session should last, how often he and the client should meet, how much the session costs, and what the permissible and impermissible behaviour must be within the session (Kohlenberg and Tsai, 2007). The realm of ethical decision-making involves the aspects of ethical dilemma, the client and the therapist’s values, race, gender, personal history, etc.; local and national laws; professional knowledge; and codes of ethics (Houser et al., 2006). The therapist may also face violations relating to dual relationships. Such relationships are nonsexual that may involve counseling a friend, relative, or neighbour, as well as receiving referrals from people who know the client and the counseling process. An ethical dilemma of dual relationships may potentially occur when the therapist has several roles with a client; in that apart from being a client, the person is also a friend, a neighbor, a relative, etc. to the therapist. It has been suggested that accepting referrals from existing clients may constitute a boundary violation (Houser et al., 2006). Indeed, even at the initial consultation, the therapist is already face-to-face with the issue of whether to continue with the professional relationship, or terminate it right away upon seeing his or her friend across the table as a client seeking therapy. Self-disclosure is another ethical issue besetting the therapist. Even during the initial consultation, the issue of self-disclosure may occur. Relating to this issue, it is important to determine the extent of information a therapist should share with the client and the types of self-disclosure to be made as well. Another example of ethical issue involving boundary is socialising with a client outside the counseling session and negotiating for fees (Houser et al., 2006). One possible ethical dilemma facing the therapist during is confidentiality, which deals with maintaining privacy and non-disclosure of information to others outside the counseling relationship, unless the client expresses consent to do so (Jenkins, 2007; Houser et al., 2006). Whenever the client enters the counseling room for the first time, he or she already expects that anything being discussed with the therapist would be kept confidential. It has been found that violations of confidentiality were a common complaint made against therapists and counselors. The client, even in the initial consultation, already begins disclosing some personal matters to the therapist, which the therapist is expected to keep confidential as his legal duty. Of important note however is the fact that confidentiality is not absolute and that there are times in which the therapist may divulge certain information a necessary (Corey, 2013; Houser et al., 2006). Examples of these are those surrounding harm that may involve the client who is contemplating about suicide or is expressing thoughts about inflicting harm to others; court-involved clients; child abuse reports; and clients with medical conditions who express engaging in precarious acts relating to their condition (e.g. HIV) (Houser et al., 2006). Further, it was found that successful outcomes ensue when clients change their personal values and take a close resemblance of that of the therapist/counselor. A relevant ethical dilemma with regard to this is in order for the counseling to be successful, how similar the client’s values must be to the counselor. Moreover, another dilemma is whether fostering such similarity is ethical and helpful enough to the client. A question for the profession is whether therapists utilise moral and ethical frameworks reflecting society’s norms as the only basis of their ethical decision-making, or whether therapists come to an ethical decision whilst taking into account the values, morality, and ethical stances of their diverse client population (O’Donohue and Fisher, 2009; Houser et al., 2006). These issues are being dealt with even upon an initial consultation. Conclusion This paper dealt with the importance of initial consultation and the ethical issues facing the therapist in the performance of his profession. An initial consultation is important because it forms the basis of the client’s diagnosis. It generally covers finding out the reasons as to why the client seeks help and what he or she aims to obtain as a result of the psychotherapy experience. The ethical issues faced by the therapist in the conduct of his profession during the initial consultation are those involving a decision to charge the client for a specific fee or not for the initial consultation; potential sexual attraction between them; the issue of confidentiality and client consent; emotional tyranny; violations relating to dual relationships; and self-disclosure. Having laid down these ethical factors besetting a therapist, the conclusion being arrived at is that the therapist is bound by set standards and ethical codes through which the expected functions of his performance must be based, and that he/she should conduct the initial consultation and further sessions objectively. References Boylan, J. C., Malley, P. B/, and Reilly, E. P. (2011) Practicum Internship: Textbook and Resource Guide for Counseling and Psychotherapy. Third Edition. NY: Brunner-Routledge. Corey, G. (2013) Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. Ninth Edition. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning. Houser, R., Wilczenski, F. L., and Ham, M. (2006) Culturally Relevant Ethical Decision-Making in Counseling. London: Sage Publications, Inc. Jenkins, P. (2007) Counseling, Psychotherapy and the Law. London: Sage Publications, Inc. Klonoff, P. S. (2010) Psychotherapy After Brain Injury: Principles and Techniques. NY: The Guilford Press. Kohlenberg, R. J. and Tsai, M. (2007) Functional Analytic Psychotherapy: Creating Intense and Curative Therapeutic Relationships. NY: Springer. O’Donohue, W. T. and Fisher, J. E. (2009) General Principles and Empirically Supported Techniques of Cognitive Behavior Therapy. NJ: John Wiley Sons. Plante, T. G. (2011) Contemporary Clinical Psychology. NJ: John Wiley Sons. Weiner, I. B. and Hess, A. K. (2006) The Handbook of Forensic Psychology. NJ: John Wiley Sons. Welfel, E. (2013) Ethics in Counseling and Psychotherapy. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning. Wheeler, K. (2014) Psychotherapy for the Advanced Practice Psychiatric Nurse: A How-to Guide for Evidence-Based Practice. NY: Springer Publishing Company, LLC. Bibliography Boylan, J. C., Malley, P. B/, and Reilly, E. P. (2011) Practicum Internship: Textbook and Resource Guide for Counseling and Psychotherapy. Third Edition. NY: Brunner-Routledge. Clarkson, P. (2005) Transactional Analysis Psychotherapy: An Integrated Approach. NY: Routledge. Cooper, J. and Alfille, H. (2011) A Guide to Assessment for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapists. London: Karnac Books Ltd. Corey, G. (2013) Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. Ninth Edition. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning. Forrest, G. G. (2010) Self-disclosure in Psychotherapy and Recovery. Plymouth: Jason Aronson. Houser, R., Wilczenski, F. L., and Ham, M. (2006) Culturally Relevant Ethical Decision-Making in Counseling. London: Sage Publications, Inc. Jenkins, P. (2007) Counseling, Psychotherapy and the Law. London: Sage Publications, Inc. Klonoff, P. S. (2010) Psychotherapy After Brain Injury: Principles and Techniques. NY: The Guilford Press. Kohlenberg, R. J. and Tsai, M. (2007) Functional Analytic Psychotherapy: Creating Intense and Curative Therapeutic Relationships. NY: Springer. O’Donohue, W. T. and Fisher, J. E. (2009) General Principles and Empirically Supported Techniques of Cognitive Behavior Therapy. NJ: John Wiley Sons. Plante, T. G. (2011) Contemporary Clinical Psychology. NJ: John Wiley Sons. Weiner, I. B. and Hess, A. K. (2006) The Handbook of Forensic Psychology. NJ: John Wiley Sons. Welfel, E. (2013) Ethics in Counseling and Psychotherapy. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning. Wheeler, K. (2014) Psychotherapy for the Advanced Practice Psychiatric Nurse: A How-to Guide for Evidence-Based Practice. NY: Springer Publishing Company, LLC. How to cite Importance of Initial Consultation and Ethical Issues Facing the Therapist, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

ICT Ethical Dilemma Facebook is Chipping Away at Privacy

Question: Discuss the Report for ICT Ethical Dilemma of Facebook is Chipping Away at Privacy. Answer: Introduction The process known as Doing ethics technique (DET) has the capability to analyze various ICT related ethical dilemmas rather than focusing on other types of ethical dilemmas. In this process, certain steps have to be followed to acquire knowledge on the existing ethical dilemmas on a particular topic or issue being published over the internet. The ethical dilemma maybe faced by any individual or even an organization. This technique also helps to illustrate and understand proper mitigation techniques that could be adopted as an alternative to eliminate the identified ethical issue. In context to Lilley, Grodzinsky and Gumbus (2012), answers to some set of questions serve as a means to perform DET. The answers are given in light of the chose circumstance on moral problem. Hence, in this paper an article Facebook is chipping away at privacy has been taken to perform DET. Application of Doing Ethics Technique (DET) on the article What is going on? The article delineates a recent ethical situation that has been occurred in a standout amongst the most famous overall utilized social site Facebook. The episode depends on the security of this social stage. It is accounted for that presently Facebook is wearing down the protection level and the profile of the clients has being uncovered without the validation from the client itself (Eden, Jirotka Stahl, 2013). The explanation for the investigation of individual information is for the most part happened because of the new extra web index that works with no sort of caution. However, the users of Facebook do not have any idea in regards to how to guarantee assurance. The condition had been stood up to by one of the Facebook customers who eradicated her profile in the year of 2014 yet recreated her profile in the year of 2015. What are the facts? The realities of this case rely on upon the security procedure of Facebook. The story relies on upon a man who stood up to the security huge issues while using the Facebook internet-organizing site. The loss of the story has a Facebook profile anyway; she eradicated that because of some individual reason in the year of 2014 (Hern, 2016). Yet again, in 2015 she opened another record with irrelevant advancement completely required information. The essential concern is this she might not want to stay in contact with any of her school allies rather her partners. She established that without her knowledge individuals could look her with the assistance of Facebook. Moreover, however she kept up an extreme security and protection in her Facebook account yet at the same time she found that individuals could care for her points of interest and pictures and certain divider post without her authorization (Wright et al., 2014). The truth of the matter is that, the authorization of the clients so me individual subtle elements are still open to all other Facebook clients. What are the issues? The story has certain moral and some non-moral issues from the casualty's perspective. Notwithstanding, the news depends on a specific Facebook account client yet the issues are enormously confronting by all the Facebook clients (Osman, Wardle Caesar, 2012). The goal of the online networking is sure towards the clients that it gives an overall associating system and a free stage to the Facebook clients. The major moral issue is this that individual points of interest are being investigated before everybody without the ability of the clients. The information security is excessively broad as a part of Facebook. As per the story, the major immoral issue is that it controls the protection of the framework and shockingly the individual information are being shared among others (Lannin Scott, 2013). Who is affected? In this specific story, the casualty is a Facebook account client. Nonetheless, the casualty is one client yet at the same time, this may emerge (Brew, Cervantes Shepard, 2013). The protection is a standout amongst the most essential segments amid the execution of any long-range interpersonal communication site where clients are coming and sharing their perspectives. What are the ethical issues and their implications? Among a few moral issues, the real issue characterized in this story is imparting of individual information to obscure and more bizarre individuals. However, the client is not intrigued to share her subtle elements but rather because of absence of security and protection rather for general security setting strategies, she will undoubtedly impart her points of interest to outsiders (Lannin Scott, 2013). Occasionally it is likewise found that individual information are being abused by others for doing incorrectly works. Then again, if the abuses of individual information, for example, saving money subtle elements and individual points of interest may likewise make awful effect in the client's brain. What could have been done about it? With a specific end goal to determine this issue, more overwhelming developing security strategies are to be executed by the Facebook authority. The security customization choice must be added to all the individual area of Facebook to prevent the moral issues (Kosinski et al., 2015). Aside from this, numerous rising advancements new businesses are there who are building easy to understand items with more improved protection strategies. These are to be added to the Facebook pages. What are the options? Keeping in mind the end goal to alleviate the issues happened in the story, can be expelled by fusing certain protection standards and directions to it. Joining of Ello (hostile to Facebook interpersonal organization), one of the most recent startup open concern, that help the client to figure out how the individual information can be kept secured (Hern, 2016). Decentralization of substitute Facebook can moderate the issue. Security well-disposed option Google pursuit can be included inside the framework. Which option is the best and why? Among the recorded arrangement one of the ideal answers for the ICT based Ethical issue is decentralization of exchange Facebook. Web access is an incomprehensible however unified structure and the extreme measure of information stream is taken care of by Google, Microsoft, and Facebook (Wright et al., 2014). In this manner, greatest quantities of information are taken care of by least organizations, where the odds of danger event are at most noteworthy. Therefore, decentralized interchange to Facebook is the best alternative as for this situation the information of the staff can be put away with most extreme security. With the assistance of Diaspora, programming clients can choose their required hub registers to recover or alter individual information. Conclusion The application of DET on the chosen article has comprehended the moral issue being raised by this incident. The programmers utilize some prestigious interpersonal interaction destinations for successfully hacking as well as removing data and information. The results from this examination have decided the different arrangement that can be executed in Facebook to hold the security of clients and keep up the records secretly. Finally, to conclude it can be said that the users of Facebook should be aware about the use of Diaspora so that they can prevent their personal information from public exposure. References Brew, L., Cervantes, J. M., Shepard, D. (2013). Millennial Counselors and the Ethical Use of Facebook.Professional Counselor,3(2), 93-104. Eden, G., Jirotka, M., Stahl, B. (2013, May). Responsible Research and Innovation: Critical reflection into the potential social consequences of ICT. InIEEE 7th International Conference on Research Challenges in Information Science (RCIS)(pp. 1-12). IEEE. Hern, A. (2016).Facebook is chipping away at privacy and my profile has been exposed.the Guardian. Retrieved 14 August 2016, from https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/jun/29/facebook-privacy-secret-profile-exposed Kosinski, M., Matz, S. C., Gosling, S. D., Popov, V., Stillwell, D. (2015). Facebook as a research tool for the social sciences: Opportunities, challenges, ethical considerations, and practical guidelines.American Psychologist,70(6), 543. Lannin, D. G., Scott, N. A. (2013). Social networking ethics: Developing best practices for the new small world.Professional Psychology: Research and Practice,44(3), 135. Lilley, S., Grodzinsky, F. S., Gumbus, A. (2012). Revealing the commercialized and compliant Facebook user.Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society,10(2), 82-92. Osman, A., Wardle, A., Caesar, R. (2012). Online professionalism and Facebookfalling through the generation gap.Medical teacher,34(8), e549-e556. Wright, D., Finn, R., Gellert, R., Gutwirth, S., Schtz, P., Friedewald, M., ... Mordini, E. (2014). Ethical dilemma scenarios and emerging technologies.Technological Forecasting and Social Change,87, 325-336.

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

PRICE FLUXUATION Essays - Pricing, Marketing, Consumer Theory

PRICE FLUXUATION There are many factors that can cause the price of a product to fluctuate. The product that we are examining is a high quality mountain bike that has been set at a price of fifteen hundred dollars. This price was reached by taking into consideration all of the Laws of Demand. The need of a product to consumers greatly reflects the percent of markup over the initial cost of production. A product is not always sold at a specific percent above cost; many different factors are taken into consideration. There are numerous research teams whose job is to study the economy and provide advice to larger companies on how greatly their product is needed. Although consumers may not approve, quite often prices increase without notice or explanation. The distance between where the product was manufactured and where it is sold has a minute effect on the price. For example, if the mountain bike were made in Sweden it would roughly cost fifty dollars for it to be sent over to the United States. Sometimes an event might occur and the popularity of a once unknown sport may increase and therefore the price increases with the consumer's wants. A two hundred-dollar increase in the price of a mountain bike would not be unheard of around the time of Tour de France. A much more serious increase, like a five hundred-dollar increase, occurs only in extreme circumstances and not as often as the less expensive price fluctuation. If the mountain bike became extremely popular and most of the stores were sold out and not expecting more until the next year, a dealer might hold a few a side with a very hefty markup. A much more widely accepted price change is that of a price decrease. A fifty-dollar decrease could occur with competition between two businesses. Sometimes when a business is just beginning and they are trying to get their product out on the market they lower the price. Such a decrease of two hundred-dollars would be seen in such a promotion. The decrease in the price by five hundred-dollars doesn't happen as often as hoped. Such an event like a recall on a product could cause the price to decrease by one-third of the original price. In the world market it is not unlikely for a product's price to increase and decrease rapidly due to many factors. However, the bigger the amount of increase or decrease the less often the occurrence. It should be highly evident that any event can cause a product to gain or loose value. For example, the increase in gas prices could cause more people to ride bikes, therefore increasing the need for bikes and increasing the price. The factors that effect prices of certain products are often not related.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Social Learning Theory Essays

Social Learning Theory Essays Social Learning Theory Paper Social Learning Theory Paper Social Learning Theory: Social Learning is on the nurture side of the Nature Vs Nurture debate. The main concept of the social learning approach is that you learn by observing the behaviour of others and the outcomes of those behaviours. For example, if a child was to see someone getting positively rewarded, they would copy the behaviour to receive the reward. Whereas, if they were to see someone being punished they wouldnt copy it. (Van Wagner K, 2005) Social learning theory explains human behaviour in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioural, and environmental influences. (Learning-Theorists, 2009) Albert Bandura stated in 1977 that Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behaviour is learned observationally through modelling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviours are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. Modelling is a method used where the client learns from imitation alone, without any specific verbal direction by the therapist. (Wikipedia, modelling, 2008) The conditions that must be in place for effective modelling are: * Attention A persons characteristics determine their attention level; such as sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, past reinforcement. (Learning-Theorists, 2009) * Retention Retention is remembering what you paid attention too, such as mental images, sounds, symbolic coding. (Learning-Theorists, 2009) * Reproduction This is when you reproduce what it is you paid attention too, such as physical capabilities and self-observation of reproduction. (Learning-Theorists, 2009) * Motivation Motivation is having a good enough reason to imitate what you paid attention to in the beginning. Motivation can be past, promised and vicarious. (Learning-Theorists, 2009) Albert Bandura Albert Bandura was born on the 4th December 1925, and is a Canadian psychologist that created the Social Learning theory. (Wikipedia, Albert Bandura, 2008) He first started research on the Social Learning theory whilst he worked in the Department of Psychology at Stanford University. Working along side one of his students Richard Walters; they studied human motivation, thought and action which he then furthered to social learning and aggression. This all interlinks to his most famous experiment The Bobo Doll Experiment. Bobo Doll Experiment The Bobo Doll experiment was first conducted in 1961. Its main goals were to help understand behavioural learning in the form of aggression. The experiment involved 72 children aged between 3 and 6, divided equally by gender, watching a model acting in a certain manner towards the Bobo Doll. The children were then split into groups that were divided by gender, aggressive behaviour and non-aggressive behaviour. They were then split between models that were the same gender or different gender. In total, there were 8 experimental groups. (Wikipedia, Bobo Doll Experiment, 2008) The children were taken individually into a room which contained a Bobo Doll, lots of toys and a model. The child watched the model for 10 minutes whilst they played with the toys for a minute and then acted aggressively towards the Bobo Doll for the rest of the time, using physical and verbal abuse and also hitting it with a mallet from one of the other toys. (Wikipedia, Bobo Doll Experiment, 2008) The model would then leave and the child would be taken to a second room which contained the same equipment as the previous room, but this time the model would only play with the toys and completely ignore the Bobo Doll. (Wikipedia, Bobo Doll Experiment, 2008) The child would then be taken to a third room which contained many appealing toys and a Bobo Doll. The child would only be allowed to play with the toys for a short amount of time until someone would enter the room tell them that those toys were for the other children and that they werent allowed to play with them. This was to make the child angry, hoping to cause aggression. (Wikipedia, Bobo Doll Experiment, 2008) Finally, the child would be taken to a fourth room with contained toys of aggressive and non-aggressive nature, such as the Bobo Doll, a mallet, toy guns, a ball, paper and crayons, plastic farm animals and a tea set. (Wikipedia, Bobo Doll Experiment, 2008) Bandura recorded the results of the Bobo Doll experiment in 8 different measures of aggression ranging from kicking the doll, shouting insults they heard from the model and using the mallet. After studying the results Bandura found out that children do learn from watching the behaviour of others, discovering that the children that saw the aggressive model imitating the physical aggression, 38.2 from boys and 12.7 from girls. The same results were found for verbal abuse, with boys using it 17 times and girls 15.7 times. It was also proved that males tended to be more aggressive than females, after finding out that there were 270 incidents of males showing aggression, against females showing aggression 128 times. (Wikipedia, Bobo Doll Experiment, 2008) Social Learning in Health and Social Care Social Learning is present in school education from teachers and fellow students. Teachers have to help students believe they can do the work and watch others be successful and develop self-efficiency to experience success themselves. Teachers also have to show appropriate behaviour and language whilst around students; this is so they get an understanding of what is right and wrong. (Teachnet) Teachnet states that Modelling provides an alternative to shaping for teaching new behaviours. Instead of using shaping, which is operant conditioning, modelling can provide a faster, more efficient means for teaching new behaviour. To promote effective modelling a teacher must make sure that the four essential conditions exist; attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation. Social Learning in Health Education In health education, there is no approach that has been specifically said to work better than the rest. Social Learning could be used in health education to try to advise someone to reduce or stop whatever is harming their health. An example of this would be using the peer-led approach to health education, such as if an ex-smoker was to talk to a smoker about giving up, the ex-smoker could explain about all the advantages to their health and wellbeing, like no loss of breath and no lingering smell on their clothes, hands and hair.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Current Event paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Current Event paper - Essay Example There has been an emergence of longitudinal evidence showing that legal unions of same-sex marriages are likely to remain in a committed relationship. It is suggested that legalized relationship status often impact positively on the longevity of the relationship over time. Scientific research has not found any evidence that would justify the likelihood of discrimination against same-sex couples. In comparison to the heterosexual couples, it has been proven through scientific research studies that same-sex marriage is less stable. However, the ABA policy has remained consistent in its assurance that same-sex couples are healthy, functioning societal contributors who should not be discouraged or discriminated upon. There has been a consistent urge to the society to eliminate the stigma and discrimination against same-sex marriage. There has been a lot of grappling for over twenty years on the question of extension of legal rights and protections for same-sex couples. State courts and legislatures have been considering the issue of equality that is pertinent in the constitution as they are aligning the laws pertaining to same-sex marriages (Hull, 2006). The topic of same-sex marriage has been a thorny issue for over a long period in the American society. There has been concern over the issue for a long period on the issue since it seems to go against the human and religious morals of all the religions all over the world. On religious principles across different religions, marriage is viewed as a platform of childbearing and upbringing. As such it is only prudent for people of opposite sex to marry and bear children. Same-sex couples do not have the will power to raise children live alone to bear. As a child grows, he/she will be contented with the fact that he/she was born by a mother and a father. From the names alone the child would naturally believe that the mother is female, and the father is male. How would a child, who is barely getting to